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Welcome to our FAQs page, hopefully you will find your answers here. If you need more in depth advice please call us on 0131 447 7777.

Icom IC-A25 (1)

The Icom A25 radio replaced the A6 and A24 models.

The CE version is a COM transceiver only and the NE version also has a VOR/LOC receiver and a bluetooth headset interface built-in.

Both units have the same radio features and take the same accessories.

These units come in two packages – SPORT and PRO.

The SPORT package comes with an Alkaline battery case, aircraft power supply, antenna, belt clip and handstrap.

The PRO package includes a rechargeable Lithium battery instead of the alkaline case, a desktop mains fast charger and a GA headset adaptor.

Avionics (1)

Aviation and electronics join to form the word avionics – basically it is equipment that is installed in aircraft or spacecraft to conduct hundreds of mission and flight management tasks, such as navigational systems, engine controls, flight control systems, communications, weather radar, lighting systems, threat detection, fuel systems, and performance monitors.

Various types of electronic systems are employed in modern aircraft, spacecraft, and artificial satellites in order to accomplish their purpose and mission. As a general rule, the more complex the craft or mission, the more complex the electronic systems employed.

Commercial airliners, helicopters, military fighter jets, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), business jets, and spacecraft all rely on avionics to perform functions, complete missions, conduct research, monitor performance, and ensure safety requirements are met. As well as improved performance and maintenance, advanced avionics systems integrate multiple functions.

Electronic Flight Instruments (4)

FBW systems replace mechanical flight controls with an electronic interface to provide semi-automatic, computer-controlled flight control of aircraft.

In response to the pilot’s movements, the aircraft’s flight control computers (FCCs) interpret those signals and adjust actuators that move the flight control surfaces. Sensors throughout the aircraft are also monitored by computers so that automated adjustments can be made to ensure the best possible flight. Using sensor data from active control sticks, the FCC creates “tactile cueing”, which provides pilots with tactile feedback. They sense how the aircraft is moving and how its aerodynamic limits are affected by the FCC.

Pilots move levers, rods, cables, pulleys, and more in traditional mechanical and hydro-mechanical flight control systems to change control surfaces according to aerodynamic conditions. Pilots are able to direct, tactilely feel how the aircraft is handle aerodynamic forces while flying with their “hands on” design. Additionally, mechanical systems are bulky, heavy, and require frequent maintenance, are difficult to use, and require constant monitoring.

Fly-by-wire is also lighter and less bulky than mechanical controls, which can increase fuel efficiency and allow for more flexible aircraft designs, even in legacy aircraft. Additionally, most fly-by-wire systems come with triple or quadruple redundancy back-ups to prevent flight critical failures. Fly-by-wireless, fly-by-optics, power-by-wire, and other innovations are also in development for the system.

If you are interested in buying avionics please visit our avionics page

The Primary Flight Display (PFD) is an instrument which integrates and depicts, on a single display, all of the information that was historically presented on a number of individual electromechanical instruments. The PFD has evolved from a basic attitude indicator/flight director combination, presented electronically on a CRT, to an Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator (EADI) which, variable by manufacturer, added additional information such as heading, altitude and airspeed.

The modern PFD displays virtually all of the information that the pilot requires to determine basic flight parameters (altitude, attitude, airspeed, rate of climb, heading, etc) plus autopilot and auto-throttle engagement status, flight director modes and approach status. Depending upon the phase of flight and pilot selections, the flight director will provide appropriate lateral guidance to maintain the selected track, heading or approach and missed approach track and vertical guidance for climb and descent, level off, approach and missed approach. This greatly reduces pilot workload while in manual flight and facilitates flight monitoring with the autopilot engaged as all required information is displayed on a single instrument. Skybrary

An Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) is a flight deck instrument display system in which the display technology used is electronic rather than electromechanical.

A typical EFIS system comprises a Primary Flight Display (PFD) (Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator (EADI)) and an Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) (Navigation Display). In some designs the two displays are integrated into one. Skybrary

The Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI), often referred to as the Navigation Display (ND), replaces a number of different instruments found on a conventional aircraft instrument panel, and may be used to depict some or all of the following information:

plus much more information according to design.


Electronic Conspicuity Devices (1)

Electronic Conspicuity (EC) is an umbrella term for the technology that can help pilots, unmanned aircraft users and air traffic services be more aware of what is operating in surrounding airspace. EC includes the devices fitted to aircraft and unmanned systems that send out the information, and the supporting infrastructure to help them work together. Airborne transponders, air traffic data displays, ground-based antennas and satellite surveillance services are all examples of EC. The information generated by these can be presented to pilots and air traffic services visually, audibly or both to provide them with information on other traffic nearby. This strengthens the principle of ‘see and avoid’ by adding the ability to ‘detect and be detected’. To be most effective it needs 100% of users operating in a designated block of airspace using compatible EC devices, and be able to be detected by others.

EC can play a vital role in three key areas to support the UK’s Airspace Modernisation Strategy (AMS):

1. Enabling the on-going modernisation of the UK’s airspace structure and route network.

2. Helping to mitigate the risk of mid-air collisions in Class G, and infringements into controlled airspace.

3. Enabling the safe and efficient integration of unmanned aircraft

More Information on the CAA website

ADS-B (1)

Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast (ADS–B) is a surveillance technology in which an aircraft determines its position via satellite navigation or other sensors and periodically broadcasts it, enabling it to be tracked. The information can be received by air traffic control ground stations as a replacement for secondary surveillance radar, as no interrogation signal is needed from the ground. It can also be received by other aircraft to provide situational awareness and allow self-separation. ADS–B is “automatic” in that it requires no pilot or external input. It is “dependent” in that it depends on data from the aircraft’s navigation system.

The system involves an aircraft with ADS-B determining its position using GPS. A suitable transmitter then broadcasts that position at rapid intervals, along with identity, altitude, velocity and other data. Dedicated ADS-B grounds stations receive the broadcasts and relay the information to air traffic control for precise tracking of the aircraft.

  • Automatic – Requires no pilot input or external interrogation.
  • Dependant – Depends on accurate position and velocity data from the aircraft’s navigation system (eg. GPS).
  • Surveillance – Provides aircraft position, altitude, velocity, and other surveillance data to facilities that require the information.
  • Broadcast – Information is continually broadcast for monitoring by appropriately equipped ground stations or aircraft.

ADS-B data is broadcast every half-second on a 1090MHz, digital data link.

Broadcasts may include:

Flight Identification (flight number callsign or call sign)
ICAO 24-bit Aircraft Address (globally unique airframe code)
Position (latitude/longitude)
Position integrity/accuracy (GPS horizontal protection limit)
Barometric and Geometric Altitudes
Vertical Rate (rate of climb/descent)
Track Angle and Ground Speed (velocity)
Emergency indication (when emergency code selected)
Special position identification (when IDENT selected)

The ability of a ground station to receive a signal depends on altitude, distance from the site and obstructing terrain. The maximum range of each ground station can exceed 250 nautical miles. In airspace immediately surrounding each ground station, surveillance coverage extends to near the surface.

We stock a wide range of ADS-B equipment, browse here >>

For more info visit: wikipedia, air services Australia, beechcraft

Headsets (4)

Aviation headsets are worn by pilots and will always have a microphone and be designed for good noise reduction. Lowering the volume of engine, airflow and blade noise is important to protect pilots from loss of hearing. Microphones allow the pilots to communicate with the ground, air traffic control and with others in the aircraft, co-pilot or navigator.

ANR stands for Active Noise Reduction, where a microphone picks up the external noise and a mirror of the sound is created electronically and played back out to the ear cups. This effectively cancels out the external noise. It can be extremely effective at removing ambient sounds creating a very clear headset for pilots, protecting your hearing from engine noise. They are design to cancel low frequency sound, so speech, engine noise changes and airflow are easily picked up. They are generally smaller and lighter than pnr headsets therefore can be more comfortable.

PNR or Passive Noise Reduction headsets use noise absorbent foam to absorb sound and gel seals along with a more clamped fit to create a seal around the ears to protect from damaging noise. So these headsets are more about sound proofing.

Choice usually come down to personal preference. PNR will give a good level of protection while still keeping the pilot connected to the aircraft. ANR tends to be more expensive because of the technology that goes into them. It may also help to consider the environment that you will be using them in and the level of noise that you are exposed to.

We stock a wide range of ANR headsets and PNR headsets.

Electret microphones which are high impedance and require a drive voltage to operate. Electret microphones are very sensitive and often contain a noise-cancelling circuit to reduce background noise. Standard GA headsets use electret microphones

Dynamic microphones are low impedance. They are not sensitive and usually only pick up noise within a few inches of the microphone so they tend not to pick up wind or engine noises and are ideal for noisy or open cockpit aircraft. Military headsets use dynamic microphones but the intercom or radio needs to have a special amplifier to be able to use them.

Dynamic microphones can be used on standard GA systems when a special amplifier is used.

We stock Binder-7, Fischer, LEMO, Twin GA, US NATO and XLR-5. It is easy to see which headset comes with each plug, just go to our Aviation Headsets section and use the filters on the left to select your required plug. You will then see all the headsets available with that plug.